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The City-State in Europe, 1000-1600Hinterland, Territory, Region$
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Tom Scott

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199274604

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274604.001.0001

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Europe in ad 1000

Europe in ad 1000

(p.5) 1 Europe in AD 1000
The City-State in Europe, 1000-1600

Tom Scott

Oxford University Press

Europe in 1000 is a vantage‐point, not a starting‐point: the chapter emphasizes continuities in the recovery of urban life, commerce, and population in Europe, especially the Mediterranean. City‐states are an outgrowth of the wider appearance of urban communes throughout Europe. The chapter therefore criticizes customary accounts of the flowering of central and northern Italian communes, pointing to similar developments in the Low Countries or the Upper Rhine. It examines the failure of the south Italian cities to develop into city‐states. In northern Italy, the chapter stresses the role of churchmen in promoting civic life and autonomy, especially during the age of church reform and the Investiture Contest. The chapter also examines the rise of Novgorod.

Keywords:   communes, commercial revival, demographic recovery, Low Countries, Upper Rhine, Novgorod, church reform, Investiture Contest

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