The conclusion discusses military medical examination statistics during the Second World War. These point towards considerable advances in public health compared with the First World War and, for the first time, the examinations also included women. Nevertheless, the trend towards greater gender equality only went so far and the traditional roles of male breadwinner and female dependant were woven into the fabric of the postwar welfare state. In these altered circumstances, the social imperialist ideology and holistic notions of health, which had emerged around the turn of the century, disintegrated. The conclusion traces the biographies and postwar history of the leading activists and organizations discussed in this volume. The book ends by commenting on the inherent dilemma of modernity, namely the complex relationship between economic growth, technological progress, health, and well‐being exemplified by the rise of degenerative diseases in the age of affluence.
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