Since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the elusive Therapeutae have sometimes been read through a different lens, and configured as a branch of the better known Essene school of Judaea, anomalies explained away by their being an Alexandrian branch of the school, or by Philo's twists on sources describing Essenes. This study has reconfigured the Therapeutae as one of the ascetic, contemplative groups that formed part of the philosophical school of Jewish allegorical exegesis in first-century Alexandria. The Therapeutae are illustrative of one of these groups: the extreme allegorizers. Philo chose to present this particular group as indicative of the virtue of the Jews to an audience of Romans, in Rome, during the course of his representations there in 41 CE. He differed with this group regarding the praxis of Jewish law, calendar, asceticism of the young, and celibacy, and was uncomfortable about the women. This study has rested on issues of women and gender in the rhetoric of De Vita Contemplativa and in the group to which Contempl. points.
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