This chapter explores how Cicero figures ‘mental states’, with a special emphasis on the notion of conscientia (‘conscience’), which he employs throughout his career as orator, as well as in his philosophical writings, not least to validate his belief in a just universe. Related aspects that receive discussion are his rhetoric of madness (furor), which functions as both diagnosis and punishment of the wicked; his assertion of the self‐sufficiency of virtus, which renders the just immune from any collapse in the social economy of excellence and its recognition; and his (often counterfactual) ethics of happiness.
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