This concluding chapter seeks to answer the research question posed at the outset: to what extent have the objectives of combating racism and promoting ethnic equality been mainstreamed into EU law and policy? Several concepts of racism were identified within the book: scientific, cultural, and institutional. Although EU law and policy have addressed scientific and cultural forms of racism, institutional racism has yet to be fully engaged with. The EU has gradually recognised that racism affects more than simply immigrants, and there has been increasing policy activity around Roma communities. There is not, though, much concrete engagement with intersectionality and racism. The book concludes that the EU needs a more coherent and comprehensive framework for mainstreaming ethnic equality issues. There is a potential starting point within the Treaty of Lisbon, but more detailed implementation within the EU institutions is required.
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