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Historic Firsts – How Symbolic Empowerment Changes U.S. Politics - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Historic Firsts: How Symbolic Empowerment Changes U.S. Politics

Evelyn M. Simien


Election 2008 made American history, but prior campaigns paved the way, starting with the candidacies of Shirley Chisholm in 1972 and Jesse Jackson in 1984. While unsuccessful, they were significant. This book focuses on primary contests, compelling us to think about the lasting impact of unsuccessful candidates–Chisholm and Jackson–insofar as they influenced American voters across various racial, ethnic, and gender groups as well as the electoral prospects of future candidates. Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama benefitted from a shift in perception and the spectacle of past primary campaigns, ... More

Keywords: representation, empowerment, intersectionality, presidential elections, brokerage politics

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2015 Print ISBN-13: 9780199314171
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2015 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199314171.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Evelyn M. Simien, author
Associate Professor of Political Science and African American Studies, University of Connecticut

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