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The Bosnian Muslims in the Second World War$
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Marko Attila Hoare

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199327850

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199327850.001.0001

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The dual Bosnian resistance

The dual Bosnian resistance

c. April 1941–April 1943

(p.13) 1 The dual Bosnian resistance
The Bosnian Muslims in the Second World War

Marko Attila Hoare

Oxford University Press

The occupation of Bosnia-Hercegovina by the Axis powers, and their imposition of a brutal and unrepresentative Ustasha puppet regime on the country, provoked widespread resistance that cut across national and class borders. Just as Ustasha rule affected different sections of the Bosnian population differently, so the resistance took a multitude of forms. In the countryside, Serbs threatened with extermination took up arms and fought battles with the Ustashas; in the cities and towns, members of all nationalities - Muslims, Croats, Serbs, Jews and others - engaged in quieter forms of resistance. This ranged from workers’ acts of industrial sabotage, through women’s demonstrations against food shortages, through notables’ lobbying on behalf of political prisoners and public agitation against Ustasha crimes. The predominantly Serb guerrilla resistance in the countryside and the multinational political resistance in the cities and towns formed the two wings of the resistance. The Communists comprised the bridge between the two wings of the resistance, and were the only political force capable of uniting Bosnians of all nationalities. The Ustashas were therefore faced with two, parallel Bosnian movements of resistance to the NDH.

Keywords:   Bosnia-Hercegovina, Axis, Ustasha, Muslims, Croats, Serbs, Jews, resistance

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