This chapter offers a unifying semantics for ‘reason’ as used in talk about explanatory reasons, normative reasons, and motivating reasons. The word is analyzed as meaning explanation why, and normative reasons for an agent to act are analyzed as explanations why it is good in some contextually salient way, for that agent to act. Combined with the end-relational theory of ‘good’, this account extends to normative reasons for attitudes, including reasons for belief, and to subjective and motivating reasons. Topics discussed include the agent-relativity, gradability, and factiveness of reasons, and the meaning of the possessive.
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