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PanpsychismContemporary Perspectives$
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Godehard Bruntrup and Ludwig Jaskolla

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780199359943

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199359943.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use.date: 27 June 2022

Panpsychism and Panprotopsychism

Panpsychism and Panprotopsychism

(p.19) 1 Panpsychism and Panprotopsychism

David J. Chalmers

Oxford University Press

The chapter presents the Hegelian Argument for panpsychism. It is inspired by Hegel’s dialectical method in exploring the possibility of a conceptual middle-ground between materialism and dualism. It seeks a ‘synthesis’ between these two antithetical positions. The chapter establishes this synthesis by elucidating the opposition of materialism and dualism, as well as their respective strengths and weaknesses: Materialism is supported by causal arguments, which claim that causal explanations must be grounded in physical properties. If phenomenal properties are to be causally relevant, they have to be grounded in physical properties. This entails the truth of materialism. Conceivability arguments undermine the truth of materialism: There is no strong modal entailment between physical and phenomenal properties; physicalism requires that physical facts necessitate all other facts. Conversely, dualism is supported by conceivability arguments and heavily criticized by causal arguments. It presents constitutive Russellian panpsychism as a promising synthesis in this dialectic.

Keywords:   panpsychism, panprotopsychism, Russellian panpsychism, Russellian monism, critique of physicalism, critique of dualism

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