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Beyond the Arab SpringThe Evolving Ruling Bargain in the Middle East$
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Mehran Kamrava

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199384419

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199384419.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 17 April 2021

The Fragmented State of the Syrian Opposition

The Fragmented State of the Syrian Opposition

(p.397) 14 The Fragmented State of the Syrian Opposition
Beyond the Arab Spring

Bassam Haddad

Ella Wind

Oxford University Press

This chapter provides a survey of the key events that have demonstrated the opposition’s difficulties in undertaking collective action since the beginning of the uprising in Syria. The regime, as well as certain factors in the Syrian political landscape, contributed to the political fragmentation of the opposition. The historical and structural factors that animated the rise and development of the Syrian opposition continue to set the stage for divisiveness within society as the uprising continues. The chapter identifies the four most important factors behind the fragmentation of and obstacles faced by the opposition: the geography of Syrian cities; a profoundly heterogeneous society; a polarized and still unfledged media environment; and a regional and international context in which many opposing and competing players are attempting to manipulate the uprising to their own benefit. This chapter also demonstrates the ways these factors have influenced key events in the uprising as well as relations within the opposition and between the opposition and outside actors.

Keywords:   Syria, Syrian opposition, political fragmentation

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