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European Defence PolicyBeyond the Nation State$
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Frédéric Mérand

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199533244

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199533244.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 27 October 2021

European Security in Crisis

European Security in Crisis

(p.93) 4 European Security in Crisis
European Defence Policy

Frédéric Mérand (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

The international defense and the European foreign policy field each underwent crises in the early 1990s. The end of the Cold War and their own fiscal problems led West European governments to slash military spending. Military organizations faced both a budgetary and a legitimacy crisis. This forced them to find ways, beyond traditional defense, to regain legitimacy and salvage their resources. Meanwhile, with the Single European Act and the Treaty of Maastricht, EU policy began to pervade domestic policymaking. The domestication of EU policy meant that foreign ministries were no longer each other's sole interlocutors in the EU. The influence of European diplomats abroad was also called into question in the Balkans, in Africa, and elsewhere. In the 1990s, Europe was portrayed as an economic giant but a political dwarf.

Keywords:   Balkans, Cold War, domestication, European security, European Union, foreign ministries, Maastricht Treaty, military organization

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