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Granular Patterns$
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Igor Aranson and Lev Tsimring

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199534418

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534418.001.0001

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Surface waves and patterns in periodically vibrated granular layers

Surface waves and patterns in periodically vibrated granular layers

(p.91) 5 Surface waves and patterns in periodically vibrated granular layers
Granular Patterns

Igor S. Aranson

Lev S. Tsimring

Oxford University Press

This chapter examines pattern-forming phenomena in thin layers of granular materials subjected to low-frequency periodic vertical vibration above the acceleration of gravity. Compared to driven granular gases discussed in Chapter 4, dense layers of granular materials under sufficiently strong excitation exhibit fluid-like motion. The most spectacular manifestation of the fluid-like behavior of granular layers is the occurrence of surface gravity waves which are quite similar to the corresponding patterns in ordinary fluids. To understand the nature of these collective phenomena, many theoretical and computational approaches have been developed. The most straightforward approach is to use molecular dynamics simulations which are feasible for sufficiently thin layers of grains. On the other hand, since the scale of observed pattern typically is much greater than the size of the individual grain, a variety of continuum approaches, ranging from phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau type theories to granular hydrodynamics, are discussed.

Keywords:   surface waves, granular hydrodynamics, Ginzburg-Landau theory, molecular dynamics, thin layers, continuum approaches

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