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Leaderless Europe$
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Jack Hayward

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199535026

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199535026.001.0001

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Leaderless Enlargement? The Difficult Reform of the New Pan‐European Political System

Leaderless Enlargement? The Difficult Reform of the New Pan‐European Political System

Chapter:
(p.188) 10 Leaderless Enlargement? The Difficult Reform of the New Pan‐European Political System
Source:
Leaderless Europe
Author(s):

José M. Magone

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199535026.003.0011

Far from EU enlargement and deepening being contradictory, the addition of new members to the EU led to new policies such as the redistributive regional policy structural funds consequent on the southward expansion of the 1980s. They became second only to the Common Agricultural Policy in expenditure. Northern enlargement encouraged environmental, social, and employment policies, while Central and Eastern enlargement was based on democratic and anti-corruption conditionality. Members who favoured enlargement were Britain, the Scandinavian countries, and Germany, while the others were either reticent or hostile, notably France towards Turkish accession. Enlargement was on elite-led process, popular hostility contributing to the rejection of the constitutional referendum in France and the Netherlands. Enlargement has necessitated institutional and financial adjustments, increasing problems of convergence and of leadership.

Keywords:   elite, regional policy, structural funds, convergence, referendum, Turkish accession

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