Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
How We Reason$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Philip Johnson-Laird

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199551330

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551330.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 27 November 2020

Icons and Images

Icons and Images

(p.21) Chapter 2 Icons and Images
How We Reason

Philip N. Johnson-Laird

Oxford University Press

This chapter explains how to make spatial inferences. It is suggested that human beings can construct internal representations of spatial layouts, and these representations are referred to as mental models of spatial layouts. A mental model is iconic, that is, its parts and the relations among them correspond to the parts of the layout and the relations among them. In contrast, the logical form of a sentence is not iconic, because its structure is remote from the structure of the situation it describes. A spatial model, however, is an icon of what it represents. In addition, three psychological experiments are discussed that support the claim that the brain could use an underlying three-dimensional mental model of an object to construct a two-dimensional image of its appearance from a particular point of view. The chapter also considers whether reasoning depends on images or models.

Keywords:   mental models, spatial layouts, icons, images, spatial model, reasoning

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .