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Innovation, Path Dependency, and PolicyThe Norwegian Case$
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Jan Fagerberg, David Mowery, and Bart Verspagen

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199551552

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551552.001.0001

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University—Industry Relations in Norway

University—Industry Relations in Norway

(p.297) 11 University—Industry Relations in Norway
Innovation, Path Dependency, and Policy

Magnus Gulbrandsen

Lars Nerdrum

Oxford University Press

This chapter analyses the relationship between universities and industry in Norway. Funding figures, publication and patent data, surveys, and interviews all indicate that there has been a slow and steady increase in university-industry relations during the last twenty years. In the 1980s an increase in the share of industry funding of university R&D can be seen, and the 1990s saw a strong growth in PhD students finding work in firms. Many of these trends are found all over the OECD area, although there are large variations across disciplines, institutions, and industries. Some evidence exists to suggest that Norwegian firms may be particularly collaborative when it comes to R&D and innovation. There are, however, also barriers to how close the cross-sector relations may become. For example, data on graduates' transition to work indicate how the shorter-term expectations and needs of firms may be difficult to meet by the universities and colleges.

Keywords:   innovation, R&D, policy, funding, graduates, PhD students

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