This chapter is concerned with proportionality in punishment. Two different conceptions of proportionality are explored: an aesthetic conception and proportionality as balance. The second conception, it is argued, is suitable for punishment institutions. The idea of proportionality in self-defence and war is then extended to the case of punishment. A range of issues is explored as a result, including the cap on punishment, the question of resources and the legitimate aims of punishment. The exploration of the death penalty is also continued here.
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