Political concern that rapid economic growth did not appear to be benefiting the poor led to an increased focus in the mid‐1990s on ensuring public expenditure was pro‐poor and on monitoring poverty trends. This chapter discusses the measures adopted to increase the poverty focus of the budget. It also looks at the institutional arrangements and the methods used to monitor poverty trends. Household survey data shows that between 1992 and 2006 Uganda experienced one of the largest and fastest reductions in income poverty recorded anywhere in modern times. Participatory Poverty Assessments, which were pioneered in Uganda, and other non‐quantitative methods illustrate the multi‐dimensional nature of poverty and the unevenness of progress towards poverty reduction.
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