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Mechanisms of Life History EvolutionThe Genetics and Physiology of Life History Traits and Trade-Offs$
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Thomas Flatt and Andreas Heyland

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199568765

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568765.001.0001

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Mechanisms of nutrient-dependent reproduction in dipteran insects

Mechanisms of nutrient-dependent reproduction in dipteran insects

Chapter 10 Mechanisms of nutrient-dependent reproduction in dipteran insects
Mechanisms of Life History Evolution

Alan O. Bergland

Oxford University Press

Dipterans are an order of holometabolous insects that include genetic model organisms, agricultural pests, disease vectors, forensic tools, and model systems for other aspects of biology (e.g., photoperiod, diapause, trophic ecology). Because Dipterans play such an important role in basic biology and human society, a considerable amount is known about the life histories (i.e., age dependent schedules of development, reproduction, and death) of these species. Amongst Dipterans there is abundant variation in life histories, particularly with respect to reproductive habits. Such variation ranges from semelparity to iteroparity, larviposition to oviposition, and univoltinism to multivoltinism. These differences in reproductive habits directly reflect the ecological niches of these species. Often, variation in reproductive habits amongst species reflects within-species variation, and such variation corresponds to ecological variation amongst populations. Research over the last decade has documented the genetic and physiological basis for variation in reproductive habits within species. However, a much smaller body of research has focused on the genetic and physiological differences that determine variation in reproductive habits between species. This chapter integrates what is known about the genetic and physiological basis of variation in reproductive habits within and between Dipteran species, and highlights how ecological factors act to shape such variation.

Keywords:   diptera, insects, reproduction, nutrition, diet, plasticity, hormonal signaling, evolution, ecology

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