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Carbon-Energy Taxation – Lessons from Europe - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Carbon-Energy Taxation: Lessons from Europe

Mikael Skou Andersen and Paul Ekins


When taxes are introduced on carbon and energy, and the revenue is used to reduce other taxes, will a positive effect be achieved both for the environment and for the economy? In 1990, Finland was the first country that introduced a tax on CO2. Later, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Slovenia, Germany, and the UK followed suit with tax reforms that shifted taxation from labour to carbon and energy. Over the years, CO2 and energy taxes have gradually been raised, so that in Europe taxes of more than 25 billion EUR a year have been shifted. In this book, these experiences with carbon‐energy taxatio ... More

Keywords: taxation policy, competitiveness, carbon‐energy taxation, energy‐intensive industries, CO2

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2009 Print ISBN-13: 9780199570683
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570683.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Mikael Skou Andersen, editor
Professor of Policy Analysis, National Environmental Research Institute and University of Aarhus

Paul Ekins, editor
Professor of Energy and Environment Policy, UCL Energy Institute, University College London
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Part I Pricing of Carbon in Europe

2 Design of Environmental Tax Reforms in Europe

Stefan Speck1 and Jirina Jilkova2

Part II Industry‐Sector Competitiveness

Part III Country Competitiveness and Carbon Leakage

8 Carbon Leakage from Unilateral Environmental Tax Reforms in Europe, 1995–20051

Terry Barker2, Sudhir Junankar3, Hector Pollitt4, and Philip Summerton5

Part IV Implications for Future Climate Policy