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Soft InnovationEconomics, Product Aesthetics, and the Creative Industries$
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Paul Stoneman

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780199572489

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572489.001.0001

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Aggregate Measures of Soft Innovation

Aggregate Measures of Soft Innovation

(p.58) 3 Aggregate Measures of Soft Innovation
Soft Innovation

Paul Stoneman

Oxford University Press

This chapter takes a macro economic view and attempts to provide some feel for the extent of such innovation in the economy as a whole and the economic activities built upon it. At the macro level, indicators of soft innovation include the numbers of creative employees in different sectors, the extent of design activity, and head counts of copyrights and registered trademarks. The difference between the latter and indicators of R&D spending is considered as potentially the most useful on account of both concept and data availability. It is shown that that the extent of soft innovation in the creative and other industries is extensive, probably greater that that indicated by measures of formal R&D activity, and also growing faster than TPP activity. Across industries, the apparent balance in innovative effort between sectors after taking account of soft innovation is also shown to be much more even than reliance upon measures of TPP innovation alone would suggest.

Keywords:   copyrights, design, creative employees, innovation indicators, R&D, trademarks

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