This chapter discusses the meaning of basic concepts such as the burden of proof, standard of proof, and presumptions. It explains how those concepts are defined in the common law system, the civil law system, and in international law. It argues that because those concepts do not have exactly the same meaning in all legal systems, WTO panels and the Appellate Body should clearly define those concepts in the context of WTO law, taking into consideration the basic structure of the WTO dispute settlement system.
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