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Causality in the Sciences$
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Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo, and Jon Williamson

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199574131

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 14 May 2021

Causal thinking

Causal thinking

(p.129) 7 Causal thinking
Causality in the Sciences

David Lagnado

Oxford University Press

How do people acquire and use causal knowledge? This chapter argues that causal learning and reasoning are intertwined, and recruit similar representations and inferential procedures. In contrast to covariation‐based approaches to learning, this chapter maintains that people use multiple sources of evidence to discover causal relations, and that the causal representation itself is separate from these informational sources. The key roles of prior knowledge and interventions in learning are also discussed. Finally, this chapter speculates about the role of mental simulation in causal inference. Drawing on parallels with work in the psychology of mechanical reasoning, the notion of a causal mental model is proposed as a viable alternative to reasoning systems based in logic or probability theory alone. The central idea is that when people reason about causal systems they utilize mental models that represent objects, events or states of affairs, and reasoning and inference is carried out by mental simulation of these models.

Keywords:   causal learning, reasoning, interventions, causal mental models, mental simulation

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