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The Familiar EnemyChaucer, Language, and Nation in the Hundred Years War$
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Ardis Butterfield

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199574865

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574865.001.0001

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Lingua franca: The International Language of Love

Lingua franca: The International Language of Love

(p.234) 7 Lingua franca: The International Language of Love
The Familiar Enemy

Ardis Butterfield (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

This chapter develops the argument of Chapter 5 by comparing groups of ballades, written in both English, French and Anglo‐French, on the continent and on the island, specifically composed in the ‘international’ language of love. Reading across and between Machaut, Froissart, Chaucer, Gower, and Graunson, teaches us to move on from the notion of source and ‘original’, or impersonal intertextuality, towards a much more flexible sense of love poetry as a deeply and multiply layered linguistic process, that passes from a large area of mutual self‐reference up through to examples of individual retorts and ripostes. Such a process cannot be easily characterized as ‘English’ or ‘French’: instead, poets are working with a much less rigid notion of linguistic — and literary — difference.

Keywords:   Machaut, Froissart, Chaucer, Gower, Oton de Graunson, medieval lyric, ballade, love poetry, source study, intertextuality

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