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Time for a Visible HandLessons from the 2008 World Financial Crisis$
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Stephany Griffith-Jones, José Antonio Ocampo, and Joseph E. Stiglitz

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780199578801

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199578801.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 06 March 2021

The Accumulation of International Reserves as a Defense Strategy

The Accumulation of International Reserves as a Defense Strategy

(p.269) 15 The Accumulation of International Reserves as a Defense Strategy
Time for a Visible Hand

Fernando J. Cardim de Carvalho

Oxford University Press

The chapter by Carvalho explores the accumulation of international reserves as a defensive strategy, as well as the reasons and limitations of their “self‐insurance” function. Conceptually, countries demand reserves of foreign currencies for a similar set of reasons to those which explain why individuals demand liquidity. However, while individuals hold liquid assets primarily to effect transactions, countries do it mostly for precautionary reasons. Again, as in the case of individuals, the stronger the demand for money, the harder it is to obtain liquidity in public sources and money markets. The chapter notes that international liquidity provision remains as important now as it was in the recent past. Carvalho argues that the best alternative would clearly be an international monetary system where a new international currency could be created according to global liquidity needs, as well as for emergency liquidity facilities to protect countries from adverse temporary external shocks.

Keywords:   international liquidity, reserve accumulation, self‐insurance, new international currency

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