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Electron CrystallographyElectron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction$
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Xiaodong Zou, Sven Hovmöller, and Peter Oleynikov

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199580200

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580200.001.0001

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Phase contrast, contrast transfer function (CTF) and high‐resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM)

Phase contrast, contrast transfer function (CTF) and high‐resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM)

(p.131) 6 Phase contrast, contrast transfer function (CTF) and high‐resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM)
Electron Crystallography

Xiaodong Zou

Sven Hovmöller

Peter Oleynikov

Oxford University Press

Phase contrast, the contrast transfer function (CTF), kinematical scattering and the weak-phase object approximation are central concepts for image formation. The physics is described in great detail with one hundred formulas, leading up to the fundamental relation between electron wave phases and structure factor phases. Through-focus series are discussed as a means to collect all the information from a structure projection – some data may be lost in one HRTEM image because it falls on a node (= zero cross-over of the CTF) but this data can be obtained from another image taken at another defocus value. It is shown that singly and doubly scattered electron waves are transferred differently by the objective lens to the image. Thus, they can be separated in image processing, especially if a few images of different focus are combined.

Keywords:   phase contrast, contrast transfer function, CTF, kinematical scattering, phase object, weak-phase object, image formation, through-focus series, multiple scattering, Scherzer defocus, structure factor, high-resolution electron microscopy, structure image

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