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Epilepsy and Memory$
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Adam Zeman, Narinder Kapur, and Marilyn Jones-Gotman

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199580286

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580286.001.0001

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Electrophysiological studies of memory in epilepsy

Electrophysiological studies of memory in epilepsy

(p.323) Chapter 18 Electrophysiological studies of memory in epilepsy
Epilepsy and Memory

Thomas Grunwald

Manila Vannucci

Oxford University Press

Invasive recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs) from depth electrodes within the human hippocampal formation have identified novelty detection as an important subprocess that contributes to encoding for verbal memory. N400 potentials associated with this process correlate with neuronal density of the hippocampal CA1-region and can be selectively reduced by the NMDA-receptor blocker ketamine. Together with the finding that NMDA-receptor dependent long-term potentiation can readily be induced only in slices of non-sclerotic but not of sclerotic human hippocampi these results suggest that successful encoding for verbal memory is mediated by NMDA-receptor dependent novelty detection within the human hippocampal system and that hippocampal sclerosis interferes with this process. Moreover, hippocampal ERP recordings indicate that temporal lobe epilepsy can interfere with the hippocampal differentiation between pictures of real and nonsense objects thus suggesting that impaired encoding of visual-semantic attributes of objects may contribute to visual memory deficits.

Keywords:   temporal lobe epilepsy, event-related potentials, depth electrodes, N400, P600, late negative component, novelty detection

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