This chapter first provides essential information on the bio-chemistry of soluble alginate and its transformations into hydrogels. The different methods already developed to associate alginate and silica within materials of different composition, morphology and size are then extensively described. The influence of silicification on the chemical and physical properties of alginate-based systems is then discussed. Finally, The chapter comments upon the diverse applications of these bio-nanocomposites in biotechnology and bio-medicine. As a conclusion, extension of the alginate-based composite approach to non-silica inorganic nanomaterials is presented and some perspectives for further developments in this area are provided.
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