In practice, the relational approach of this book turns out to have much in common with the perspectives of impartial concern, global egalitarianism, or demanding global beneficence whose foundations it undermines. Combined with the real if limited transnational demands of beneficence, the transnational interactions whose moral impact has been traced generate a vast sum of unmet responsibilities of people in developed countries to help needy people in all developing countries. Despite the limited efficacy of foreign aid, fulfillment of these responsibilities would provide great benefits to these people, at significant cost to some disadvantaged people in developed countries. Within stringent limits of political feasibility, efforts to reduce irresponsibility should give priority to the neediest, the same priorities as follow from impartial concern. The positive long‐term goal unifying these efforts is an aspiration to replace subordination and deprivation with global civic friendship, paralleling the aspiration to civic friendship among compatriots while taking very different forms.
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