The Making of the Community of the Realm, 1189–1227
This chapter analyses the transformation in the functions and working of national assemblies which took place between Richard I's accession in 1189 and the end of Henry III's minority in 1227. That transformation was largely caused by two factors: the fiscal demands of the crown, and the increasingly controversial nature of royal counsel, the result of King John's reliance on an inner circle of counsellors, many of them aliens. Magna Carta, which was in part the product of these royal policies, marked a crucial step towards the establishment of parliament by making national taxation subject to conciliar consent for the first time. The giving of counsel was being transformed from a duty which magnates owed to the king into a right to be used against him. This process was completed during the long minority of Henry III, when national councils gained a new authority by governing in the king's name, granting taxes, and sanctioning government appointments.
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