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From Bilateralism to Community InterestEssays in Honour of Bruno Simma$
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Ulrich Fastenrath, Rudolf Geiger, Daniel-Erasmus Khan, Andreas Paulus, Sabine von Schorlemer, and Christoph Vedder

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199588817

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588817.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 03 December 2021

Universal International Law's Grammar

Universal International Law's Grammar

(p.138) Universal International Law's Grammar
From Bilateralism to Community Interest

Dirk Pulkowski

Oxford University Press

As the universal geographical reach of the law of nations has become a reality, the universality of international law has come under attack in another respect. Theorists of international relations observe that the international order has become more and more ‘fragmented’ into a variety of issue-specific normative arrangements. In fact, some argue that ‘international law’ (in the singular) is gradually being replaced by a variety of issue-specific ‘international laws’ — including the legal rules of such regimes as trade law, environmental law, the law of human rights, and the law of cultural heritage. This radically particularistic vision of the international order is uncompelling. This chapter argues that while the substantive legal prescriptions under various regimes differ widely, all these regimes also have important commonalities. All subsystems of international law use a common discourse of justification, which permits and often requires decision-makers in different regimes to situate their decisions in relation to other regimes. The shared ground rules for rational discourse that universally apply across the international order notably include concepts of ‘general international law’ and accepted rules of interpretation. Hence, what holds the universe of international law together is not so much a hierarchy of norms or a common rule of recognition. Rather international regimes remain communicatively compatible with one another by virtue of a common discourse.

Keywords:   international law, law of nations, international relations, international order, trade law, environmental law, human rights

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