In the late 1530s, Melanchthon's new formulation of the will's role in justification came under criticism from Conrad Cordatus and John Calvin. As the 1540s began, Melanchthon continued to clarify his new doctrinal system. Of particular significance was his redefinition of predestination not as God's election of individuals, but as God's corporate election of the church as body—a body which individuals could freely join or leave through the choice of faith in Christ. Meanwhile, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic Church affirmed a transformational model of justification similar to that which Erasmus had advocated.
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