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Decision Making, Affect, and LearningAttention and Performance XXIII$
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Mauricio R. Delgado, Elizabeth A. Phelps, and Trevor W. Robbins

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199600434

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600434.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 22 October 2021

A neural systems model of decision making in adolescents

A neural systems model of decision making in adolescents

(p.405) Chapter 19 A neural systems model of decision making in adolescents
Decision Making, Affect, and Learning

Monique Ernst

Oxford University Press

This chapter focuses on a heuristic neural systems model of motivated behaviour. This model provides hypotheses for mechanisms underlying changes in behaviour across development and psychopathology. The fractal triadic model (FTM) posits that goal-directed behaviour results from the interaction among three nodes of behavioural control. These three functional nodes are centred on the amygdala, striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex, which contribute to avoidance, approach, and modulation, respectively. They feed two distinct neural circuits: one that is modulated primarily by appetitive stimuli and serves approach behaviour, and one that is modulated primarily by aversive stimuli and serves avoidance behaviour. The behavioural output results from the integration of the information that is processed by these two neural circuits and is submitted to the control of the supervisory node. Such organization of three functional nodes subserving two neural circuits relies on the well-described structural and functional heterogeneity of these nodes. In addition, asynchrony in the maturational trajectories not only among the nodes, but also among the subunits of these nodes, is the central principle that underlies the typical behavioural changes seen in adolescence. Functional neuroimaging research is beginning to examine ontogenic changes in neural responses to reward-related processes that can further inform this heuristic model. The chapter addresses the major points mentioned above and ends with selected questions proposed as priority for future research.

Keywords:   heuristic neural systems model, motivated behaviour, fractal triadic model, adolescence, neural circuits, teenagers

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