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Global Migration Governance$
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Alexander Betts

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199600458

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600458.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 09 December 2021

Human Trafficking and Smuggling

Human Trafficking and Smuggling

(p.224) 9 Human Trafficking and Smuggling
Global Migration Governance

Susan Martin

Amber Callaway

Oxford University Press

Human trafficking is the third largest and fastest growing criminal industry in the world. It affects millions of people around the globe and reaps billions in profits. Trafficking is generally thought of as the movement of a person from one country to another. However, trafficking within countries is also common, and perhaps occurs to an even greater extent than transnational trafficking. The international regime to address human trafficking issues has evolved during the past decade, with the adoption and entry into force of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (hereafter called the Palermo Protocol) in 2003, which supplements the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. A complex set of institutional frameworks have developed as well, offering a wide array of programmes to address the three basic components of an anti-trafficking strategy: prosecution of traffickers, prevention of trafficking, and protection of trafficking victims. Gaps still exist, however, in the organizational capacities to address prevention and protection issues. As with other international regimes focused on movements of people, the legal frameworks and institutional responses tend to be focused only on those who have been forced to cross borders. While constraints of sovereignty undoubtedly make it far more difficult to address internal trafficking, a more comprehensive approach to combating this phenomenon requires broader international attention to this form of trafficking.

Keywords:   human trafficking, human smuggling, Palermo Protocol, UNTOC, prevention, protection, prosecution

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