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Citizens and the European PolityMass Attitudes Towards the European and National Polities$
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David Sanders, Pedro Magalhaes, and Gabor Toka

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199602339

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602339.001.0001

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But Still It Does Not Move: Functional and Identity-Based Determinants of European Identity 1

But Still It Does Not Move: Functional and Identity-Based Determinants of European Identity 1

(p.110) 6 But Still It Does Not Move: Functional and Identity-Based Determinants of European Identity1
Citizens and the European Polity

Pierangelo Isernia

Irena Fiket

Fabio Serricchio

Bettina Westle

Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses three set of issues related to European identity. It first reviews the existing theoretical and empirical literature on European identity, organizing it around two major perspective, the neofunctionalist and the identitarian one. Second, it discusses the different ways European identity has been measured over time and it traces its evolution, based on different indicators, from the early 1970s up to 2007. The format of the question appears to be the most important element in explaining variation in levels of European identity, followed by the nation and, last, time. Third, the chapter assesses the relative weight the functional and identity models play in explaining variations in levels of European identity cross-nationally and over time. Using a pooled design, the results show that both functional and identity components are important in explaining variation in level of European identity over time and cross-nationally. As to identity, the quality of government index and the percentage of foreign workers are both significantly and negatively related to European identity. While all functional variables point in the right direction, length of duration of EU membership, a controversial and important indicator of the aggregate level of European identification, is found not significantly related with the aggregate level of European identity.

Keywords:   European identity, neo-functionalism, political identity, European integration, pooled analysis, support for European integration, European Union

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