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Animal EvolutionInterrelationships of the Living Phyla$
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Claus Nielsen

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199606023

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.001.0001

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(p.195) 35 POLYZOA (BRYOZOA s.l.)
Animal Evolution

Claus Nielsen

Oxford University Press

The Polyzoa is a clade comprised of Entoprocta, Cycliophora, and Bryozoa. The entoproct Pedicellina was initially placed in the Bryozoa, but important differences between Pedicellina and Loxosoma and the other bryozoans led to the division of Bryozoa into Entoprocta and Ectoprocta. Based on the similarity between the entoproct larvae and rotifers, the entoprocts were placed next to the rotifers, while the ectoprocts were assigned to the group Tentaculata along with phoronids and brachiopods. The name Lophophorata was introduced for the same group, even though such a clade is not supported by most molecular phylogenies. Polyzoa apparently belongs to the Spiralia. Both bryozoans and cycliophorans seem to be highly specialised, with unique larval types and life cycles.

Keywords:   bryozoans, cycliophorans, Polyzoa, Entoprocta, Cycliophora, Bryozoa, Pedicellina, Loxosoma, Ectoprocta, Lophophorata

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