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Animal EvolutionInterrelationships of the Living Phyla$
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Claus Nielsen

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199606023

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.001.0001

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Phylum Entoprocta

Phylum Entoprocta

(p.199) 36 Phylum Entoprocta
Animal Evolution

Claus Nielsen

Oxford University Press

The phylum Entoprocta consists of approximately 200 described species that are benthic with trochophoratype larvae. Most species are marine, and only a few are found in the brackish zone. The fossil record includes bioimmured colonies of a species of Barentsia from the Upper Jurassic, very similar to the recent B. matsushimana. The phylum includes the family Loxosomatidae in the order Solitaria and three other families in the order Coloniales. Molecular studies support the monophyly of the group and the sister-group relationship of the two orders. Solitary and colonial entoprocts have significantly different life cycles, and are clearly a monophyletic group belonging to the Spiralia. Some species of Loxosomella have a very straightforward metamorphosis. The Entoprocta is a sister group of both the Cycliophora and the Ectoprocta.

Keywords:   entoprocts, Entoprocta, Barentsia, Loxosomatidae, Solitaria, Coloniales, Spiralia, Loxosomella, Cycliophora, Ectoprocta

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