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Animal EvolutionInterrelationships of the Living Phyla$
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Claus Nielsen

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199606023

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.001.0001

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Animal Evolution

Claus Nielsen

Oxford University Press

The Proepitheliozoa is a clade of ‘sponges’ with epithelia-like cell layers that have joined cells showing parallel orientation. However, the homoscleromorphs possess a basal membrane with collagen IV, similar to that found in the eumetazoans. The epithelia of the eumetazoans are organised by genes mostly found in silicean Amphimedon, although the sponges have no epithelium that makes extracellular digestion possible. Homoscleromorphs and eumetazoans both possess a remarkable number of cell-signalling and adhesion genes, some of which also occur in other sponges.

Keywords:   sponges, Proepitheliozoa, homoscleromorphs, collagen IV, eumetazoans, epithelia, genes

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