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Animal EvolutionInterrelationships of the Living Phyla$
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Claus Nielsen

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199606023

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199606023.001.0001

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Phylum Homoscleromorpha

Phylum Homoscleromorpha

(p.31) 9 Phylum Homoscleromorpha
Animal Evolution

Claus Nielsen

Oxford University Press

The Homoscleromorpha is a small phylum consisting of roughly sixty extant species of marine ‘sponges’. Previously placed within the Demospongiae, both morphological and molecular studies now indicate that it is a separate phylum. The basal membrane contains collagen IV, which, along with recent molecular studies, supports a sister-group relationship between the homoscleromorphs and the eumetazoans. During sexual reproduction of the homoscleromorphs, spermatogonia develop from choanocytes and whole choanocyte chambers differentiate into spermiocysts. Both homoscleromorphs and eumetazoans possess a large number of cell-signalling and adhesion genes, some of which are absent in Amphimedon.

Keywords:   marine sponges, Homoscleromorpha, collagen IV, homoscleromorphs, eumetazoans, sexual reproduction, genes, Amphimedon

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