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The Psychology of Music in Multimedia$
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Siu-Lan Tan, Annabel J. Cohen, Scott D. Lipscomb, and Roger A. Kendall

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199608157

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608157.001.0001

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Congruence-Association Model of music and multimedia: Origin and evolution

Congruence-Association Model of music and multimedia: Origin and evolution

(p.17) Chapter 2 Congruence-Association Model of music and multimedia: Origin and evolution
The Psychology of Music in Multimedia

Annabel J. Cohen

Oxford University Press

The evolution of the Congruence-Association Model (CAM) is presented in a cognitive-scientific and historical context. Iteration 1 of CAM proposed a bottom-up process for analysis of musical and film stimuli in terms of ‘Congruence’ (audiovisual structural overlap) and ‘Association’ (contingency-base meaning). Iteration 2 added speech and top-down inference to create the best match with bottom-up processing. Adding sound effects and text, Iteration 3 referred to the best match between top-down and bottom-up information as the conscious ‘working narrative.’ A developmental version of CAM was also proposed to accommodate cohort-specific multimedia experience at critical periods. Iteration 4 incorporated a kinesthetic channel, supporting a mirror system and embodied meaning. The chapter illustrates how psychological experiments increase understanding of the role of music in multimedia, and aims to help set the stage for further empirical work and progress.

Keywords:   working narrative (narrative), sound effects, speech, comprehension, inference, predictive coding, top-down/bottom-up, diegesis, absorption, developmental critical period

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