This concluding chapter underlines how by the end of the twentieth century attitudes towards population transfer had come full circle. Advocates of population transfer were again on the fringes of acceptable political debate in Europe. It outlines five salient features that marked out the concept of population transfer. Over the course of the first half of the twentieth century, population transfer emerged as (1) a distinct measure; (2) a progressive and humanitarian measure; (3) a pan-European and cross-ideological measure; (4) a limited and localized measure; and (5) an option of last resort and a barometer of political intractability.
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