This chapter summarizes the preceding discussions and presents some final thoughts. It argues that the answers to questions about judicial effectiveness depend on the definition of what ‘effectiveness’ is; and that even if one identifies what makes international courts effective — i.e. what goals they ought to attain — serious questions of measurement and assessment continue to present themselves. The analysis conducted in this book shows that international court effectiveness depends on various interrelated factors, including structural and procedural features, as well as the environmental conditions against which these judicial institutions operate. Future research into judicial effectiveness could utilize the theoretical framework developed in this book and explore specific research questions relating to specific goal-attainment attempts of distinct international courts at different points in time.
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