This chapter is an exercise in damage control. Locke holds that we need the notion of substratum or substance in general, but also that it is hopelessly obscure and confused. This chapter examines his remarks about the idea and its origins, and shows that although various of them suggest different theories, he is not really putting forward any theory of substance. He is not endorsing the notion of bare particulars. He is a philosopher in a muddle, but one who knows that he is in a muddle.
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