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GrapheneA New Paradigm in Condensed Matter and Device Physics$
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E. L. Wolf

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199645862

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645862.001.0001

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Experimental probes of graphene

Experimental probes of graphene

(p.128) 6 Experimental probes of graphene

E. L. Wolf

Oxford University Press

After brief review of important electrical transport measurements, optical and Raman methods, techniques of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunnelling microscopy, spectroscopy (STM/STS) and scanning tunneling potentiometry are introduced. It is pointed out that ARPES, like conventional transport measurements, average over a large area, while STM and scanning single electron transistor (SSET) measurements are local, on an atomic scale in some cases. Capacitance spectroscopy is described and the scanning single electron transistor is described as a method of mapping surface potential and determining a density-of-states quantity called the inverse compressibility. The use of the latter SSET method in finding fractional quantum Hall effects is described.

Keywords:   Raman methods, ARPES, STM/STS, scanning tunneling microscopy, single electron transistor, optical absorption, fractional quantum Hall effects

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