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Bourgeois Liberty and the Politics of FearFrom Absolutism to Neo-Conservatism$
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Marc Mulholland

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199653577

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199653577.001.0001

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Communism and Fascism

Communism and Fascism

(p.173) 10 Communism and Fascism
Bourgeois Liberty and the Politics of Fear

Marc Mulholland

Oxford University Press

In Weimar Germany, parliamentary democracy stabilized, but at the cost of entrenching the power of the reactionary ‘permanent state’ (army, most police forces, judiciary, most civil servants). Constitutionalism in Italy, wracked by bourgeois / socialist conflict, collapsed into Fascism. In Soviet Russia, the prostration of the proletariat and elimination of the bourgeoisie created a vacuum filled by the Leviathan state. Elsewhere, the Red challenge was beaten back, but bourgeois confidence in democracy was left diminished. The economic Slump from 1929 put the very future of capitalism into question, radicalising Fascism in Italy and preparing the way for a an anti-Semitic Nazi take-over in Germany. Constitutionalism reached a low ebb.

Keywords:   Weimar, Stalin, Mussolini, Fascism, Hitler, Nazi Party, anti-Semitism

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