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The Evolutionary Emergence of LanguageEvidence and Inference$

Rudolf Botha and Martin Everaert

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199654840

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654840.001.0001

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(p.324) (p.325) Index

(p.324) (p.325) Index

The Evolutionary Emergence of Language
Oxford University Press
!Kung children, hunting skills110
Aboriginal people82
abstract concepts140
abstraction of numbers135–7
Abu-Mostafa, Y. S.55
acoustic flexibility in primates190–92
action domains152–3
adaptations in language faculty27–8
adaptive versatility of humans221–2
affixation in primate vocalizations195–200
Aitken, P. G.184
alarm calls93, 188, 190–91, 197–9218
in language79–80
language leaving the kin group94–6
reciprocal94–6, 217
American Sign Language250
analogue magnitude122, 124, 129
Andaman Islands, Papua New Guinea245–6
Anderson, S. R.20
animal language, distinction from human language19–21
animalssee also primates
acquisition of protolanguage232–4
communicating requests215–16
communication systems19–21, 28–9
FOXP2 gene235, 239–41, 254
meaning in communication229–31
power scavenging217–18
tool-use212, 213–15
apessee primates
arbitrariness of meaning50
archaeological evidence for language in Neanderthalssee Neanderthals
Ardipithecus ramidus252, 257
Area X in the brains of songbirds239, 241–2
ASPM gene25–6
Astafiev, S. V.174
attention of others, representing141, 144–5, 149–50, 156
auditory systems of animals29–30
automatic vocal production183–5
babbling88, 89, 177, 217
Baldwin effect37–9
bare phonology92
Bates, E.169
Bedamuni children, hunting skills109, 112, 113
beliefs of others, representing146–7, 154–5
Bernstein-Ratner, N.56
Berwick, R. C. and N. Chomsky245–6, 247, 250, 253, 256
Bickerton, D.96, 157, 217–18
(p.326) Biesele, M.113–14
Binford, L. R.104
biological limitations of language21
biological perspective on language evolution249–53
biological variation across species23
bipedal gait249
Area X in brains239, 241–2
language gene in25
birdsong19, 30–31, 92–3
and FOXP2 gene236–9
genetic link with language223–34
Blevins, Juliette36
Blombos Cave, South Africa99–100
Blurton Jones, N. G. and F. Marlowe106
Boesch, C. and H. Boesch-Achermann84, 145
Botha, Rudolf79 fn, 100, 133
brain size127, 252–3
brain structure and number concept127–8
Brannon, E. and H. Terrace131
bridge theories2, 5, 17
Broca, Paul244–5
Broca’s area175, 179, 184, 226
Brown, K. S.102
Bruner, Emiliano127
Buckley, C. and J. Steele106
Burling, R.82
Callaway, E.253
Camaioni, L.165
Campbell’s monkeys186–8, 191–2, 194, 195, 198–200, 201
Cantlon, J. F.128
cardinality121–2, 134, 135
Carey, S.123, 130, 136
Carstairs-McCarthy, A.20 fn
category domains150–52
CELEX database50
Chakravarti, A.256
change, relationship with evolution45
Chater, N. and M. H. Christiansen38
child-directed speech50–55, 56–9
CHILDES database50
Chomsky, N.45, 182, 244, 246–8, 256–7
Christiansen, M. H. and N. Chater43, 74
Christiansen, M. H. and R. Dale47–50, 56
Christiansen, M. H. and P. Monaghan57
chromosome16 24
CMAH gene255
CNTNAP2 gene235–6
Cochet, H. and J. Vauclair165–6, 172–3
Cognitive semantics141–2
colobus monkeys201
combinatorial explosion55–6
communication, animal19–21, 28–9, 215–16, 229–31
communicative gestures161–80
comparative method182
complexity of language89–93
comprehension of language224–5
computational systems in birdsong231–2
convergent evolution213–21
conversation in primates192–4
Coolidge, F. L. and T. Wynn120
cooperative breeding216–17
Corbey, R. and W. Roebroeks102
beads for133–6
cross-cultural analysis of learning hunting skills108–15
cross-species variability in language faculty22–4
cultural evolution perspective43–61
Cutler, A.49
(p.327) Darwin, Charles22, 43–4, 244
Deacon, Terence248
deaf children63–75
De Brazza monkeys201
deception in primates210
declarative gestures163–6
declarative pointing141, 149–50, 151
Dediu, D. and D. R. Ladd25–6
defining characteristics of humans249–50
Dehaene, S. and L. Cohen43
Dehaene-Lambertz, G.173
deictic gestures161
demonstration, as method of teaching82–6
d’Errico, Francesco120, 125
de Saussure, F.50
desires of others, representing143–4
Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia (DVD)234
Diana monkeys188, 196
Diester, I. and A. Neider128
Diller, K. C. and R. L. Cann99, 254
discrete elements in language20–21
distributional cues52–5, 56–7
Dobzhansky, T.21
domain-general constraints44–5
Donald, Merlin88, 251–2
duality of patterning20
Duna, New Guinea82
Dunbar, R. I. M.83, 218–19
Dunn, M.49 fn
Dunning, T.52 fn
distinction from I-language45
Elman, J. L.47
emergent sign language64–75
of others, representing143, 148–9
in primate vocalizations185–8
empathy143, 148–9
Enard, W.240, 254, 255
Engle, R.136
Evans, N. and S. Levinson61
event domains154–5
event-related potential (ERP) techniques174–5
evidence for language evolution
animal207, 218, 220, 223
archaeological10, 98–104, 126–7, 129, 182, 215
in children’s communicative behaviour11
direct and indirect1–2
in emergent language72
ethnographic85, 107
from evolutionary modelling4, 47–59
genetic97, 99, 104
in language pathology23–4
from language use6–7, 46, 83
in modern language1–2, 16, 221, 246
in neuroanatomy257
from neurological studies184
in non-human primates11–13
ontogenetic136, 161, 163, 165, 168
phylogenetic160, 163, 170, 178
in symbolic capabilities of apes257
in variability of language3, 22–3, 103, 189, 238–9
in the ‘window’ phenomena2
biological perspective249–53
cultural perspective43–61
gestures before language163
of language, timeline257–8
of language faculty28–32, 37–40
mutation for language245–6
parsimony principle207
relationship with language change45
of semantic domains155–8
of semantics139–40
evolutionary developmental biology224
F5 area177–8
Falk, D.78–9, 80, 89–90, 93, 94
false beliefs146–7
in primates210
Farmer, T. A.57, 58
Fehér, O.31
Fehr, E. and U. Fischbacher158
Fernald, A.155–6
Ferrari, P. F.178
Fias, W.128, 131
Fisher, C. and H. Tokura49
Fisher, S. E.24
Fitch, W. T.21 fn, 27, 78, 79–80, 83, 85, 90–92, 94–5, 99
(p.328) Fitneva, S. A.57, 58
FLB (faculty of language in the broad sense)29, 247
flexibility in primate vocalizations190–92
FLN (faculty of language in the narrow sense)29, 247
FMR-1 gene255
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)177
Fogassi, L. and P. F. Ferrari178
Fogel, A. and T. E. Hannan176
force domains152–3
FOXP2 (human) protein24–5, 27–8, 99, 234–6, 238–40, 253–5, 256
Foxp2 (mouse) protein25
FoxP2 (other animals) protein224, 234–43, 254
fragile X syndrome255
Frison, G. C.105
Gärdenfors, P.141, 143, 147, 150, 153
Gärdenfors, P. and M. Warglien153, 154
Garos, north-east India82
Garrod, S.74
gaze alternation, accompanying gestures166
gaze following144, 149–50, 156
genetic evidence for language in Neanderthalssee Neanderthals
genetic factors253–7
genetic link between language and birdsong223–34
genetic variation in language faculty24–6
genetically determined primate vocalizations189–92
Gergely, G. and G. Csibra145
Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel106–7
gesture systems63–4 see also sign language
accompanying motion event descriptions67–8, 69–75
Ghiglione, R.193
Gibson, Kathleen83
goal-directed cooperation145–6, 153–4
Goldberg, A.50
Goldin-Meadow, S.73, 151, 162
Goldin-Meadow, S. and C. Mylander69
Goodall, J.84
gossip among primates218–19
Gould, Stephen J.247
learning algorithms32–3
Gredebäck, G.174
Grotte du Taï119, 124–5
Grotte Lartet120
Gurven, M.110
Hamilton, W. D.78
hand preference, relationship with gestural communication167–73, 177, 179
Harris, S.82
Hart, D. and R. Sussman218
Hauser, M. D.29, 195, 247–8
Hawkins, J. A.36
Hayes, K. J. and C. Hayes249
Heine, B. and T. Kuteva45
Henshilwood, Christopher132–3
heritability of language faculty24–6
Hochel, M. and E. Milan131
Hockett, C. F.20, 50, 62
Holdaway, S. and R. Cosgrove103
homesign systems63–4, 68–75
Homo erectus257–8
Hopkins, W. D.179
Hopkins, W. D. and M. Cantero171
(p.329) horizontal transmission of sign language73–4
Hrdy, S. B.216–17
human language, distinction from animal language19–21
hunter-gatherers, Neanderthals as104–6
hunting skills, teaching of108–15
hunting stories112–14
Hurford, J. R.94 fn, 123, 137, 151
Iambic-Trochaic Law (ITL)229
iconic communication157
iconic representation62
Ifrah, G.124
I-language19, 246
distinction from E-language45
poverty of the stimulus33
image schemas141–2
imitation in primates185
imitative learning87–8
imperative gestures163–6
gestures161–2, 163–9, 172–7
vocalization86, 89–93
information, sharing outside the kin group94–6
informative gestures166, 173
innateness in primate vocalizations189–92
intentions of others, representing145–6, 153–4
intersubjectivity141, 142–7
semantic domains147–55
intonation patterns155–6
intraparietal sulcus (IPS)127–8, 131
irrational numbers121
Iverson, J. M. and E. Thelen177
Jackendoff, R. J.248
Johansson, S.80
joint attention141, 144–5, 149–50, 156
joint intention145–6, 157–8
Kaplan, H.105
KE family253–4
Kimura, D.167–8
kin group, language outside94–6
kin selection77–80, 85–6, 217
development of linguistic complexity89–93
King, M. C. and A. C. Wilson256
Klein, Richard245
Knecht, S.167
knowledge in others, representing146–7, 155
Kohler, E.178
Konopka, G.24, 236
Kuhn, S. L.134
labeling of numbers122
Ladd, D. R.25
Lancy, D. F.111
language acquisition
cultural evolution perspective44–5
phonological typicality of novel words57–9
poverty of the stimulus33–4
similarity to birdsong acquisition232–4
language change, relationship with evolution45
language disorders235–6, 253–4, 255
language facultysee also universal grammar (UG)
evolution28–32, 37–40
(p.330) larynx, lowering30
learned behaviour38
birdsong and language, similarities232–4
docility in87
by imitation87–8
learning algorithms32–3
Lee, R. B.109, 110
left-hemisphere specialization173–5
Lemasson, A.186
Lemasson, A. and M. Hausberger191
Lenneberg, E. H.249
Lewis, J.111, 113
Liebenberg, L.110
Lightfoot, D.37
Liljencrants, J. and B. Lindblom91
Lindblom, Björn91–2
Linguistic Society of Paris244–5
Liszkowski, U.166, 173
Locke, J. L.85, 86, 89–90
Locke, J. L. and B. Bogin79–80, 84, 85, 89, 93, 94
Loevenbruck, H.175–6
log-likelihood52 fn
Lovejoy, C. O.252
MacDonald, K.108, 112
MacNielage, P. F.251
magical thinking245–6
Malafouris, L.123–4, 131, 134
manner and path gestures67–8
manual asymmetries166, 167–73, 177, 179
mapping, semantics as140–41
Marler, P.186, 201
Marshack, Alexander119–20
Marshall, L.110
Matsuzawa, T.130
Maynard Smith, J.78
Mazza, P. P. A.102
Mbandjele people, hunting stories113
in animal communication229–31
shared141, 142–7
Melanesian children82
Menzel, Emil210
Merge, mutation for247–8
messages, limitations in animal communication19–20
Microcephalin-I (MCPH) gene25–6
Mielke, Jeff36
Miller, G.95
Mirolli, M. and D. Parisi94, 95
mirror neuron system177–8
Monaghan, P.50–55, 56, 57, 58, 60
Morgan’s Canon205
morphology20 fn
motherese78–9, 89, 93
intonation patterns155–6
motion events, represented in sign language65–75
motor control183–5
Müller, Max250
multiple-cue integration46–7, 49, 54, 55–60
mutation for language245–6, 247–8
Nagel, K.88
natural language19, 49
natural selection21–2, 28, 37, 247
Navajo children82
evidence of language98–107, 116–17
FOXP2 gene240, 254
Nelson, K. and L. Kessler Shaw155
neural constraints on cultural evolution46–7
(p.331) Newmeyer, F. J.36
Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL)64–8, 70–75
nightingales30–31 see also birdsong
Ninnes, P.82, 85
Noble, W. and I. Davidson100, 103
novel vocalizations in primates191
novel words, phonological typicality57–9
Nowak, M.91
number concept118–26
and brain structure127–8, 131
in early humans126–7, 129–35
and language evolution137–8
O’Grady, William248
Ohnuma, K.83
olfactory systems in animals28
one-to-one correspondence of numbers122, 123–5, 129–31, 135, 137
Orban, G.128, 132
ordinality of numbers122, 123–4, 129–32, 137
origin of language35, 45–6
ban on discussions244–5
Ouattara, K.186–8
Oudeyer, P.-Y.88
Palmer, F.102
parental language78–9, 89, 93
intonation patterns155–6
Parker, S. T. and K. R. Gibson213–14, 215
parsimony principle207
Pavard, S.86
by demonstration82–6
early language for80–81, 83
hunting skills108–15
perception of speech30
Petraglia, M.82
phonological cues50–55, 56–9
phonological typicality57–9
phonology, development in infants90–92
phylogeny, gestural communication163
physical domains149–50
Piattelli-Palmarini, M.27
Pinker, S.50, 55
Pinker, S. and P. Bloom21–2, 27, 28, 247
Pinker, S. and R. Jackendoff30
Pinnacle Point, South Africa102, 133
Pirahã people121
Ploog, D.184
pointing gestures164–6, 173, 174, 173–6
declarative141, 149–50, 151
hand preference169, 172–3
poverty of the stimulus33–4
power-scavenging hypothesis217–18
(p.332) practical skills
learning by imitation87–8
teaching by demonstration82–6
teaching by Neanderthals106
pre-linguistic vocalization78, 88, 89
Preston, S. D. and F. de Waal143
primatessee also animals
alarm calls93, 188, 190–91, 197–9, 218
brain size128
common ancestry207–8
control of speech252
cooperative breeding216
gestural communication164, 177–80
hand preference170–72, 179–80
lack of speech249–50
number concept130, 131–2
practical skills83–4
protolanguage206, 208–12
‘seeing is knowing’ concept146
sign language205, 208–9
social learning107, 111–12
vocal production182–8, 201–3
innate vs. learned189–92
social organization192–4
syntactic capacity195–200
processing units226
properties of human language20
prosodic units in birdsong228–9
prosodic vocalizations90
acquisition in animals232–4
development into complex language89–93
outside the kin group94–6
for pedagogical purposes80–81, 83, 84–6
in primates206, 208–12
Puri, R. K.110–11
putty-nosed monkeys197
quality dimensions147, 150
question formation33–4
Rabinovich, R.106
Ramsay, D. S.177
Reali, F.56
reciprocal altruism94–6, 217
red-capped mangabeys197
regularity across languages35–7
rituals for teaching84–5
Rochat, P.176
Rodrigo, M. J.165
Roebroeks, W. and A. Verpoorte100, 102
Roebroeks, W. and P. Villa102
Runesson, S.152
Russell, J. A.148
Sandler, W. and D. Lillo-Martin35
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.210
Schmandt-Besserat, D.123
Scott-Phillips, T. C.95
‘seeing is knowing’ concept146
segmentation72, 75
self-awareness of primates210–11
semantic domains139–40
Senghas, A.66–8, 70–75
sensorimotor systems227
sexual selection85, 220
shared meaning141, 142–7
Sheehan, E. A.174
sign arbitrariness50
sign language35, 250
homesign63–4, 68–75
in primates205, 208–9
Silk, J. B.193
Simon, H. A.77, 87
simulations of language evolution47–9, 56–7, 60
learning by imitation87–8
teaching by demonstration82–6
teaching by Neanderthals106
social learning
with gestures162
in primate vocalizations189–92
in primates107, 111–12
Société Linguistique de Paris21
(p.333) songs, animal219–20 see also birdsong
control of250–52
defining characteristic of humans249–50
genetic link with birdsong223–34
SRNs (simple recurrent networks)47–9, 56–7
stone tool use102
Storkel, H. L.57
string-based regularities34
Stromswold, K.24
structure-based regularities34, 36
Studdert-Kennedy, M.90–91
subitization121, 122, 124, 129
suffixation in primate vocalizations195–200
Sugiyama, M. S.114
syllables in birdsong226
symbolic gestures161
syntactic capacity in primates195–200
syntactic pointing175–6
syntax, development in infants92–3
Taglialatela, J. P.179
Tallerman, M.27
tally boards118–20, 124–5
Tasmania, records of Neanderthals103
by demonstration82–6
early language for80–81, 83
hunting skills108–15
of Neanderthals106
Terrace, H. S.205
Thangaraj, K.245
Thelen, E.177
theory of mindsee intersubjectivity
Tinbergen, N.202–3
Tomasello, M.87–8, 145, 154, 166
Tomasello, M. and J. Call146, 165
tonal contrasts26
animals212, 213–15
Torres Straits people124
Tossa de la Roca119, 125
Trevarthen, C.176
Turkish homesigners69–70, 73
turn-taking behaviour in primates194
Tylén, K.141, 157
Üçaǧizli, Turkey134
universal grammar (UG)244, 246–8 see also language faculty
universals35–7, 60
value domains152
van Beek, A. G.112, 113
Vapnik-Cherbonenkis (VC) Dimension55
variability in language faculty22–4
Vernes, S. C.253
vertical transmission of sign language74
Villanueva, P.24
visual domains149–50
vocabularies of primates211
vocal development of primates, innate vs. learned189–92
vocal exchanges in primates192–4
vocal production, voluntary vs. automatic183–5 see also primates, vocal production
(p.334) vocal tract, lack of fossils99
voluntary vocal production183–5, 250–52
vomeronasal organ28
Washoe the chimpanzee204, 208
Watkins, K. E.254
Weber, B. H. and D. J. Depew37
Wellman, H. M. and D. Liu146
White, J. P.82
White, T. D.252
Wilson, R. and A. Clark134
‘window’ phenomena2
word order correlations49 fn
Wrangham, R.257
Wynn, T.82–3
Wynn, T. and F. Coolidge136
Xu, J.177, 178
Zawidzki, T.84–5, 90, 92
zebra finches31
Zhang, J.256
Zuberbühler, K.216–17