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War in Peace – Paramilitary Violence in Europe after the Great War - Oxford Scholarship Online
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War in Peace: Paramilitary Violence in Europe after the Great War

Robert Gerwarth and John Horne


The First World War did not end in November 1918. In Russia and Eastern Europe it finished up to a year earlier, and both there and elsewhere in Europe it triggered conflicts that lasted until 1923. Paramilitary formations were prominent in this continuation of the war. They had some features of formal military organizations but were used in opposition to the regular military as an instrument of revolution or as an adjunct or substitute for military forces when these were unable by themselves to put down a revolution (whether class or national). Paramilitary violence thus arose in different co ... More

Keywords: Great War, defeat, imperial collapse, paramilitarism, political violence, revolution, counter-revolution, civil war

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2012 Print ISBN-13: 9780199654918
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654918.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Robert Gerwarth, editor
Professor of Modern History, University College Dublin

John Horne, editor
Professor of Modern European History, Trinity College Dublin

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