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Early Days of X-ray Crystallography$
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André Authier

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199659845

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.001.0001

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The Various Approaches to the Concept of Space Lattice

The Various Approaches to the Concept of Space Lattice

(p.9) 2 The Various Approaches to the Concept of Space Lattice
Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

André Authier

Oxford University Press

The various approaches to the concept of space lattices are described in this chapter. The first one is the space-filling approach, which dates back to Aristotle and Kepler. It was applied to the structure of crystals by the French school of Haüy and Delafosse and by Seeber in Germany, and was further developed by Bravais, Sohncke, Schoenflies, and Fedorov. The contribution of the German school of Weiss and Mohs was to introduce the concept of crystal systems and crystal classes. The second approach is the close-packing approach, first considered by Kepler and Hooke in the seventeenth century, and developed by Wollaston and Barlow in the nineteenth century. In the last part of the chapter the molecular theories used by the early-nineteenth-century physicists to explain the optical and elastic properties of matter are briefly reviewed. The problem of the validity of the Cauchy relations is discussed.

Keywords:   Cauchy, close packing, crystallography, Haüy, Kepler, molecular theories, space-filling, space lattice, Weiss

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