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The Perils of PeaceThe Public Health Crisis in Occupied Germany$

Jessica Reinisch

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199660797

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660797.001.0001

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Index

Index

Source:
The Perils of Peace
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
(p.316) (p.317) Abderhalden, Emil 113, 114, 304, 307
Abortion 12, 101–2, 124–7, 129, 145, 228, 230, 305
Ackerknecht, Erwin Heinz/Henry 143, 300
Ackermann, Anton 140, 226, 232, 300, 310
Adelsberger, Lucie 81, 93
Adenauer, Konrad 271
Albu, Austen Harry 158, 169, 170
Allied Committee on Post-War Requirements (Leith-Ross committee) 37, 38, 44
Allied Control Council (ACC) 6, 7, 23, 37, 53, 95, 149, 172, 177, 222–3, 257, 261, 268, 272
Allied Health Committee of the ACC 6, 166, 279, 297
Allied Field Information Agency (FIAT) 205, 206, 286
Allied Kommandatura of Berlin 97, 98, 171, 175–6, 231
Amelunxen, Rudolf 174
Americanization (also see Sovietization) 10, 293, 301, 313
anti-Communism 76, 218
antifascism 51, 63, 66, 67, 72, 74, 76, 77, 92, 98, 104, 119, 127, 137, 138, 139, 140, 143, 159, 208, 221, 223–6, 233, 239–40, 242, 246, 251
anti-Semitism 78, 141, 190
appeasement 74, 146, 303, 311
Aron, Robert 259, 266, 285, 301
Assimilés Spéciaux pour les Territoires Occupés (ASTO) 270, 272
Association of Socialist Doctors 70, 127, 129, 135, 141
Atlantic Charter 53
Attlee, Clement 178, 196
Auschwitz concentration camp 81, 105, 205, 229, 257, 315
Baden-Baden (town) 4, 56, 88, 259, 268, 270, 271, 272, 275, 276, 284, 286, 309
Baden (Land) 4, 55, 56, 214, 216, 261, 262, 278, 279, 282, 305, 315
Baer, Herbert 73, 80, 93, 121, 123, 126, 128, 129, 287
Balfour, Michael 7, 8, 22, 26, 28, 34, 53, 84, 152, 153, 154, 161, 173, 196, 198, 271, 275, 281, 301
Ballowitz, Kurt 102
Barraclough, J. A. 178
Bavaria 3, 4, 8, 11, 41, 125, 185, 190, 192, 200, 201, 203–4, 206, 207, 211
Beauchesne, General De 267
Becher, Johannes R. 90
Becker, Rolf 73, 80, 81, 93, 123, 129, 297
Bédarida, Renée 272
Behrendt, Hans-Jürgen 119, 123, 125
Behring, Emil von 116, 301
Belgium 64, 161
Bentzin, Friedrich 123, 125, 134
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp 128, 163, 180–2, 184, 192, 309
Bergmann, Friedrich Ernst von 116, 120–1, 123, 133–4
Beria, Lavrenti P.50, 89, 220, 221
Berlin Blockade 7, 98, 212, 287
Bermann, Hermann 120–1, 123, 125, 133, 296
Berzarin, Nikolai Erastovich 97, 98, 237
Beveridge, Report 70
Beveridge, William 70, 79, 178
Bevin, Ernest 82, 178, 275
Beyer, Alfred 120–2, 123, 124, 126, 128, 132, 137, 141, 142, 143
Bidault, Gerges 257
Bismarck, Otto von 14, 86, 143
Bizone, Anglo-British 6, 7, 13, 150, 213, 216, 236, 303, 314
black market 184, 191, 193
Blömer, Klaus 119, 123
Blum, Léon 83, 257, 258, 259, 292
Boenheim, Felix 69, 71, 93, 123–127, 139, 141–2, 146, 301, 312
Bokov, F. J. 118, 236
bombing raids 1, 60, 99, 131, 159, 227, 257, 271, 273, 304, 307, 311
Boucher, William H.33–5, 42–4, 152–3, 165, 167, 170, 195–6
Brandenburg 93, 232, 235, 239–41, 243–6, 314
Brandt, Karl 82, 107, 285, 302
Brieger, Heinrich 73, 93
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) 72, 80, 294
British Empire 57, 256
Brugsch, Theodor 100, 101, 114, 116, 302, 306, 307
Buchenwald concentration camp 182, 192, 194, 257
Buhrman, Parker W. 194–5
Bundesgesundheitsamt 69, 107, 118, 305
(p.318) Bundesärztekammer 93, 179
Byford-Jones, Wilfried 8, 281, 297, 302
Byrnes, James F. 302
Calories 25, 39, 175, 177–9, 197, 274, 284–5
Carsten, Francis Ludwig 25
Casablanca 20–2, 67
Catholic Church, Catholics 54, 66, 86, 88, 267, 270
Central Health Administration of the Soviet Zone (ZVG) 118–45, 178, 234, 236–7, 242–6, 248, 250–2, 296
centralization  (also see decentralization) 53, 86, 88, 264–5, 269
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) 88, 270
Charité hospital 99–104, 106, 108, 116, 124, 130, 142, 144, 147, 234, 241
Chatham House 8, 37, 51
China Medical Committee 73, 80, 82, 128–9, 297
Cholera 281, 295–7
Christian Democratic Party (CDU) 119, 306
Chuikov, V. I. 302
Churches 211, 227
Churchill, Winston8, 20, 27, 53, 76, 259, 302
‘Civil Affairs’ 9, 21–3, 27–32, 35–7, 42, 83, 177, 188–9, 252, 259, 263, 302, 303
Civil Affairs Training Schools (CATs) (also see School of Military Government) 21–2, 55
Clark, Alonzo W.217
Clauberg, K. W. 103–4
Clay, Lucius 8–9, 53, 73, 82–3, 98, 191, 194, 198, 207, 209, 213, 215–16, 218, 231, 269, 302, 312
the Cold War 2, 11, 13–14, 140, 196, 205, 208, 221, 223, 301, 311
collective guilt 180, 208, 257, 267
Cominform 6, 149, 222
Comintern 12, 48, 50–1, 61–3, 89–91, 127, 138–9, 226, 298
Comité Allemagne Libre Pour l’Ouest/ Free Germany Committee for the West (CALPO) 63–6, 72, 84–5, 87
Comité Interministériel des Affaires Allemandes et Autrichiennes (CIAAA) 56, 86, 260–1
Commandement en Chef Français en Allemagne (CCFA) 22, 268
Commissariat Général aux Affaires Allemandes et Autrichiennes (CGAAA) 260
communist parties
PCF 64, 83–5, 87, 90
CPSU 48, 63, 91, 138
Compensation (also see reparation) 19, 52, 72
concentration camps (also see under individual camps and labour camps) 69, 72, 73, 104, 107, 128, 134, 149, 154, 160–1, 175–6, 179, 181, 182, 184, 192, 194, 242, 246, 265, 267, 272, 287, 309
Conseil National de la Résistance (CNR) (also see Georges Bidault) 64–5, 255, 257
Conti, Leonard/Leonardo 264
cordon sanitaire (also see sanitary border) 272–3
Corps d’Administration Militaire Française en Allemagne (AMFA) 55, 262–3, 265–6
Coulon, Charles 269, 270, 272–3
Council for a Democratic Germany 66–71, 76–7, 118, 126, 308
Coutelle, Carl 73, 80, 93, 121–3, 126, 128–30, 246, 297
Cripps, Stafford 80
Crossmann, Richard 82
Curial, M. 280
currency reform 7, 150, 287
Cyran, Wolfgang 123, 125
Czechoslovakia 1, 4, 90, 135, 145
Dachau concentration camp 145, 192, 194, 157, 167
Dale, Henry 79, 113
DDT 272, 291
decentralization 52, 71, 87–8, 256, 261–2, 265, 269, 275
Degkwitz Rudolf 178–80, 185, 302
demobilization 153, 167, 173, 198, 215, 235, 275
Desplats, F. 266, 269, 273–5, 280–1, 284, 286–7
Dettmann, Friedrich 130
Dicks, Henry V. 39, 79, 155–9,168–9, 302
Dimitrov, Georgi/Georgy 50–1, 61–3, 90–2, 139–40, 226, 301
Diphtheria 263, 281
Displaced Persons (DPs) 1–2, 19, 31, 33, 39–41, 73, 75, 79, 152, 160–2, 175, 188, 196–7, 228, 234, 252, 272
Draper, Warren F.42–3, 188
Dresden 4, 128, 131, 227, 247, 271
Dresden Hygiene Museum 70, 145
Drigalski, Karl Wilhelm 116, 303
Döring, Edmund 123, 125, 137
Dysentery 2, 5, 198, 228, 263, 273, 281, 295–7
Eclipse, operation – see under Operation Eclipse
Eden, Anthony 79, 152, 303
Education 9, 13, 25, 39, 79, 87, 92, 98, 101, 125–6, 134, 143, 145, 155, 158, 170, 172, 224–5, 257, 268–70, 279, 282
re-education 61, 79, 83, 155–7, 190, 226, 251, 258, 262, 268, 286, 311, 313
teachers & lecturers 79, 103, 114, 157, 162, 173, 211, 225, 232, 243, 279, 286, 303, 312
schools 35, 124, 128, 151, 161, 164, 225, 243, 279, 282, 286
Antifascist, Communist party & Comintern schools 12, 62, 90–2, 226, 233
Training for military government & administration 21–2, 55–6, 73, 297
Medical schools 81, 201
Ehrenburg, Ilya 229, 303, 308
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 8, 29–31, 50, 53, 55, 73, 123, 175, 188–9, 191, 193, 196, 198, 206–8, 281, 293, 301, 303, 313
elections 3, 54, 87, 193, 215, 219, 259
Emanuel, Gustav 104, 212, 241, 253
emergency health measures 5, 33, 38–41, 51, 58, 70, 82, 99, 137, 160, 164–8, 170, 173, 185, 197–8, 202, 218, 224–5, 242–3, 246, 248, 251, 253, 263–4, 273, 275, 290, 295–6
Émigrés (German) (also see refugees) 5, 25, 59–95, 104, 118–19, 124–5, 129, 135, 156, 183, 190, 208, 224–6, 229, 232, 233, 236, 253, 270, 293, 300, 301, 310, 311
engineers 8, 9, 170, 225, 259
Engler, Robert 194, 218–9
épuration (purification, also see denazification) 55, 261, 276, 278–9, 305
European Advisory Commission (EAC) 21, 50, 53–4, 97, 261, 307
European integration 13, 37, 51–3, 149, 218, 256–9, 267, 285, 292, 298, 302, 306,
Euthanasia 105, 115–16
exile 14, 20, 50–1, 54, 59–62, 64, 66–7, 69, 71–2, 74, 76–7, 80, 83–5, 87–92, 94, 98, 104, 108, 124, 127–9, 139, 224, 226, 232, 305
governments-in-exile 20, 54, 74
expellees 1, 67, 77, 87, 125, 160, 228, 251, 271, 283
experts 52, 112, 119, 175, 209, 223, 265, 267
Falkenburger, Fritz/Frédéric 88, 92, 270–1
Falkenburger, Paul 271, 282, 303
famine (also see malnutrition) 1, 73, 160, 179, 181–2, 295, 297
Federalism 136, 191, 214–5, 219, 258, 293
Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) 7, 10, 12–14, 93, 107, 150, 187, 216, 281, 287, 300, 301, 306, 308
Fermi, Enrico 60
Fermi, Laura 60, 303
Filippi, Jean 56
First World War 20, 25, 47, 52, 63, 71, 88, 99, 101–2, 106, 123–6, 264, 270
Fischer, Eugen 264
Forces Françaises de l’Interieur (FFI) 65
Foreign Office Research Department (FORD) 21, 80, 158–9
Foreign Office (UK) 8, 21, 25–8, 34, 38, 56, 65–6, 70, 72–3, 75–9, 82, 156, 158, 176–8, 183, 197, 199, 232, 261, 275, 297, 313
Fragebogen (denazification questionnaire) 72, 153, 163, 169, 172, 189, 201, 237–8, 240, 276, 312
Frankenthal, Käthe 69, 93, 127, 304
Frankfurt a/Main 4, 15, 182, 271
Fraternization/non-fraternization 4–5, 30–1, 45–6, 193–7, 207, 210, 231, 282–3, 293–4
Free German Movement in Great Britain/Freie Deutsche Bewegung in Grossbritannien 64–6, 72, 84
Free League of Culture 72
Freund, Hugo 70–1, 73, 80, 82, 84, 118, 185, 304
Friedrich, Carl Joachim 21, 191, 304
Friends Ambulance Unit 80, 161, 178, 297
Froboese, Kurt/Curt 95, 115–16, 304
Furby, Charles J. 56
(p.320) Gaulle, Charles de 53–5, 84, 256–61, 267–72, 304
German Democratic Republic (GDR) 7, 11–12, 14, 87, 93, 104, 132, 138, 150, 230, 311
German Personnel Research Branch (GPRB) (also see H. V. Dicks) 157–8, 168–70, 173, 187, 190–1, 194
Gestapo 65, 128, 130, 178, 267
Gibson, Leonard 161–2
Giraud, Henri 84, 259
Glaser, Kurt 69, 93, 118, 127, 305
Goebbels, Joseph 106
Gohrbandt, Erwin 98, 101, 145, 242
Goldmann, Franz 73, 80, 93, 305
Gouvernement Militaire de la Zone Française d’Occupation (GMZFO) 22, 259–60, 263, 266–9, 273–4, 278, 283, 285, 287
Government and Relief in Occupied Areas (GARIOA) 218
Gollancz, Victor 178–80, 185, 303, 305
Grandval, Gilbert 86–7
Grotjahn, Alfred 137
Grotowohl, Otto 305
Haase, Ernst 126–7
Haase, Hugo 125–6
Hadamer concentration camp 145
Hamann, Anneliese 120–1, 123–4, 126–8
Hamburg 4, 15, 81, 93, 107, 130, 178–80, 182, 185, 216, 302, 306, 313–4
Handbook for Military Government in Germany 25, 28–9, 56, 153, 164, 224, 261–3, 312
Harding, Wilfrid/Hoffmann 152, 164, 167, 170–1, 306
Harms, Bruno 102, 108, 120–1, 123, 125, 130, 134,
Hayek, Friedrich von 79
health insurance 70–1, 73, 88, 111–12, 124–5, 135, 137, 143, 236, 305
Hill, A. V. 80
Hindelang, Carl von 206–7
Hitler, Adolf 21, 47, 61–2, 66–8, 73, 76, 78, 82, 84–7, 90, 100, 105–7, 115, 130–1, 135, 139, 159, 161, 174, 193, 206, 213, 225, 229, 251, 296, 299, 305, 307, 309, 313
Hitler Youth 225, 262
Hochrein, Max 206–7
Hoegner, Wilhelm 94
Holling, Werner 120–1, 123, 130, 136
Holstein, Ernst 121, 123, 125
Holthöfer, Hugo 123
Home Office (UK) 81
Housing 1, 25, 28, 52, 113, 137, 152, 165–6, 185, 198, 208, 225, 272, 290
Hull, Cordell 27, 306
Humbert, Roger 268, 272
Humblot, Henri 262, 269
Hussels, Käthe 108
indirect control 42, 57, 150, 152, 154, 173, 180, 186, 188, 207–8, 214, 219, 224, 233, 236, 252, 291–2
insulin 206, 251, 287
‘intermediaries’ 88, 92, 225, 227, 236, 253, 293
International Brigades (also see Spanish Civil War) 63, 129, 309
International Committee of the Friends of Soviet Russia 127
internment 77, 84, 89, 128, 153, 158, 171, 174, 200, 206
Japan 19, 21, 29, 41, 129, 190–1, 315
JCS 1067 30–1, 188, 190, 192, 217
JCS 1779 150, 217–8
Jews 1, 48, 51, 54, 59, 60, 69, 77, 88–9, 101, 104, 116, 123, 128–9, 131, 135, 175, 189, 206, 266–7, 270, 283, 309, 310
Junker 143, 220
Keating, Frank 83
Kempner, Robert 73, 93
Kennedy, Thomas F. 188
Kharkov (psychiatric clinic) 237
Klatt, Werner 183–4, 307
Klingelhöfer, Katharina 123–4, 126, 128, 132
Koelz, Louis-Marie 55, 270
Koenen, Wilhelm 65
Koenig, Marie-Pierre 22, 56, 123, 257, 259, 261, 268, 273, 282–4, 308
Kohl, Helmut 271
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD), see under Communist parties
Konitzer, Paul 118, 120–1, 123–4, 126, 128, 131–4, 136, 141, 145, 242, 296
Korach, Alfred 73, 80, 93
Kospoth, B. J. 230, 307
Kottmaier, J. 110–11, 307
Kubin, Milford T. 207, 211
Kuznetsov, A. Y. 100–1, 118–19, 232, 236–7, 239, 242, 247, 249–52
(p.321) Labour camps (also see concentration camps) 1, 160, 231
Labour Party (UK) 74, 170, 294–5, 313
Laffon, Emile 259, 268, 273, 276–80, 282–3, 294, 308
Landesgesundheitsamt (LGA) 112, 244, 246, 253, 276
land reform 220, 240
lawyers 72–3, 87, 133, 125, 136, 209, 214, 228, 243, 245–6, 252, 259, 279
League of Nations 33, 83
Lehmann, Helmut 123–4, 126, 128, 130, 136, 273
Lehr, Robert 179
Lenz, Josef 121, 123
Lettow, Leo Fritz 120–1, 123, 126, 128, 130, 134, 239, 242–4, 246, 308
Leonhard, Wolfgang 12, 63, 92, 98, 308
Liberation 1, 25, 28–31, 35–7, 39–40, 51, 54, 65, 92, 128, 131, 135, 149, 160–3, 172, 181, 192, 210, 218, 220, 223, 230, 255, 259, 261, 270, 290
Lindenberg, Wladimir 121, 123, 125, 131, 134
Linser, Karl 122, 134
Litvinov, Maxim Maximovich 47–50
London 20, 27, 32, 34, 46, 50, 56, 62, 65–6, 70, 73, 76, 91, 97, 127, 165, 177, 179, 182–3, 222, 259, 261
Long, Esmond R. 217, 309
Looting 11, 31, 52, 150, 160, 162, 228, 230, 234, 286
Lozovksky, Solomon 48
Ludwig, Emil 39, 309
McCance, Robert A. 151, 180–3, 186, 301, 309
McCloy, John 207, 215
Magistrat of Berlin 97–119, 123, 132, 134–5, 176, 200, 212, 232, 234, 246, 248, 273, 305
Main d’Oeuvre Immigrée (MOI) 64
Majdanek/ Maidanek concentration camp 229
Malenkov, Georgy M. 220–1
Malnutrition (also see food, hunger, rationing, nutrition surveys) 1, 5, 6, 178–9, 180–2, 187, 213, 216, 219
Manuilsky, Dimitry S. 48, 51, 226
Marshall, George C. 149, 217–8
Marshall Plan 6, 28, 149, 218, 223, 254
Martin, W. Strelley 186, 216, 297
Marxism/Marxists 47, 131, 133, 138–42, 223, 151, 300
Mayer, René 258, 260–1
Mebel, Moritz 104, 130, 312
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 123, 137, 227, 232, 240, 243–6, 250, 310
Medical Research Council (MRC) 179–8, 184–6, 283
Meiklejohn, Arnold Peter 181–5
Mellanby, Edward 179–81, 184, 297
Melnotte General 273
Michelet, Edmond 267
Mielke, Fred 105, 107, 111, 309
Mikoyan, Anastas Ivanovich 220
Ministerial Collecting Centre 158, 190
Mitscherlich, Alexander 105, 107, 111, 309
Molo, Walter von 104
Molotov, Vyacheslav M. 46, 48, 50–1, 221–2
Monnet, Jean 258
Montgomery, Bernard L. 7, 22, 97, 123, 164–6, 310
Morale 9, 44, 229, 314
Morgan, Frederick E. 196, 310
Morgenthau, Henry 28, 48, 177, 310
Morgenthau, Plan 25, 27–31, 38, 44, 46, 56, 190, 258, 285, 305, 307
Mortality 28, 99, 135, 138, 177, 185–6, 217, 272, 274, 281, 289, 301
Munich 4, 99, 125, 133, 192, 195, 261, 267, 282, 305
Murphy, Robert 8, 27, 53, 82, 195, 310
national character (also see H. V. Dicks and GPRB) 4–5, 9, 20, 22–4, 39, 45, 74, 156–7, 168–9, 186–7, 190, 216, 256, 259, 266, 298, 313
National Committee Free Germany (NKFD) (also see Free German movement) 61–66, 91–2, 224, 226–7, 306
Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) (also see denazification) 14, 20, 25, 28, 42–3, 49, 59, 88, 101, 103, 105–7, 109–10, 116, 128, 133, 153–5, 163, 166, 169–72, 174, 176, 189, 193, 199, 201–6, 209–11, 220, 225, 229–30, 234–44, 262, 264–5, 272, 276–7, 279
Netherlands 77, 81, 161–2, 256, 272, 297
Neumann, Rudolf 67, 71, 93, 122–3, 126, 128–30
New York 59, 66, 68, 70, 76, 118, 126, 308, 310
Niebergall, Otto 63–5, 72, 87
Noel-Baker, Philip 70, 73, 176–7, 196
non-fraternization, see fraternization
Normandy 40, 259, 281
Nordrhein-Westphalen 9, 167, 178–9, 312
Nürnberg/ Nuremberg 4, 107, 124, 182,
Nuremberg Trials 46–7, 73, 93, 105, 107, 110–11, 116, 153, 179, 181, 189, 236–7, 264, 285, 306, 314, 315
Nutrition (also see malnutrition) 42, 45, 81, 120–1, 143, 152, 175, 177, 180–7, 286, 315
nutrition surveys 45, 167–8, 180–7, 216, 285, 287, 307
(p.322) Office International d’Hygiène Publique 33
Office of War Information (OWI) 190
O’Neill, Con 77
Operation Eclipse 26, 36–7, 40–1, 75, 309
Orwell, George 159–62, 192
Palgunov, Nikolai G. 48
Patton, George S. 192–3
Paulus, Friedrich 226
Penicillin 99, 196, 214, 248, 287, 295
Pétain, Philippe 53–4, 56, 257
pharmaceutical industry 120–2, 275, 286–7, 289
Pieck, Wilhelm 63, 89–92, 140, 226, 239, 242, 310
Plievier, Theodor 227, 230, 248–9, 310
Poland 1, 26, 145, 291, 298
Polyclinics 137–8
Pompidou, Georges 271
Potsdam Conference/ Protocol 6, 53, 83, 153, 191, 215, 221–2, 301
Prague 76, 135
prisoners of war (POWs) 1, 19, 28, 31, 41, 51, 61–2, 65–9, 79, 92, 131, 155–8, 160, 175, 184, 201, 205, 226, 228, 230, 233–4, 237, 252, 287, 291, 301
prostitution 1, 234, 273
Prussia 23, 47, 69, 102, 125–6, 142, 161, 192, 220, 222, 230, 256–7, 267
‘de-Prussianization’ 256
quarantine 33, 99, 162, 234, 243, 252
Radetzky, Robert von 121, 131, 143, 145
Ravensbrück concentration camp 145
Rawitzki, Karl 66, 72
Reconstruction
European reconstruction 37–8, 175, 258, 292, 298, 302
French reconstruction 51–2, 258–9, 265, 267, 284, 286, 292, 294, 295
Soviet reconstruction 48, 220, 222, 294–5,
Red Army 3, 12, 48, 51, 62–3, 90, 92, 97, 112, 123, 129, 131, 138, 204, 225–30, 232–3, 250–1
GlavPURRKA (main political administration of the Red Army) 226
Red Cross 33, 73, 80, 109, 184, 196–7, 241, 297, 310
Redetzky, Hermann 123–4, 126, 128, 137–8, 141, 244, 245, 311
Redeker, Franz 98, 102–4, 107, 112, 136, 145, 176, 200, 212, 248, 311
re-education 61, 79, 83, 155–7, 190, 226, 251, 258, 262, 268, 286, 311, 313
refugee camps 228, 234, 243, 272, 295
Reich Research Council (Reichsforschungsrat) 107
Reparations (also see compensation) 28, 46–9, 51–2, 139, 150, 177, 202, 220–3, 232, 248–50, 253, 255, 286, 292, 294, 299, 307
Retribution 229, 257
Rheinland-Pfalz 87, 261, 308
The Rhine (river) 1, 271–2, 274, 291, 313
Rhineland 3, 256–9, 261, 267
Roberts, Frank 65
Robertson Brian, H. 158, 170, 177, 202
Rockefeller Foundation 183, 205
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano 20–1, 26–8, 53, 75, 190, 155, 259, 311
Rössle, Robert 100, 109, 112, 115, 305
Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC)152, 182
Rovan, Joseph Adolf 265, 267–70
Rowntree, Michael 161, 297
Rowse, A. L. 256, 311
Ruben-Wolf, Martha 89
Rudenko, Roman A. 46
Ruhrgebiet 3, 99, 164, 170, 213, 216, 256–9, 267, 292
SA (Sturmabteilung/brownshirts) 133
Saarland 64, 86–7, 286
Saburov, Maxim Z. 220
Sanitary borders 41, 263, 272, 291
Sargent Orme 80
Sartwell, Philip E. 217
Sauerbruch Ferdinand 98–103, 106–10, 112, 134–6, 145, 200, 241–2, 246–7, 304, 308, 312–4
Save Europe Now 180
Schaltenbrand, Georg 205–6
Scheele, Leonard A. 39, 44–5, 153–5, 195
Scheffers Colonel 212
schools, see education
Schleswig-Holstein 4, 130, 306, 313
Schlossmann, Hans 81
Schmid, Carlo 258
Schmidt-Kolmer, Eva 93, 122–3, 126, 129
Schmidt, Heinz 65, 72, 93, 122–3, 129
(p.323) Schölmerich, Joseph 120–1, 123, 126, 128, 130, 132–4, 240
School of Military Government 21, 55–6
Schopohl, Friedrich 101–2
Schumacher, Kurt 281
Schuman, Robert 258–9
Sécretariat Général aux Affaires Allemandes et Autrichiennes (SGAAA) 260
Selby, R. W. 72–3, 78
Semyonov, Vladimir S. 222–3
Serov, Ivan A. 119, 223
slave labourers 1, 145, 160, 162
Smirnov, Andrei S. 49–50, 100, 249
Sobottka, Gustav 232
Society for Freedom in Science (SFS) 113
Society for the Prevention of World War Three 75
Society for the Protection of Science and Learning (SPSL) 79–82, 124, 175
Society of Friends, see Quakers
Sokolov, Andrei J. 100, 119, 231–2, 249–50, 253
Sokolovsky, Vasily D. 149, 222
Soustelle, Jacques 270
Sovietization 11, 13, 221, 222, 293, 299, 301
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) 64–6, 69–70, 73, 76, 85, 88, 94, 119–138, 141, 145, 179, 185, 281, 308
Spencer, D. A. 161
SS (Schutzstaffel) 107, 155, 193, 242, 245, 302
Stalin, Joseph V. 46, 48–50, 62, 89, 91–2, 127, 139, 140, 220, 222–3, 236, 260, 306, 313
Stalingrad 61, 226, 249, 310
Standifer, Leon C. 8, 11, 193, 196–7, 209, 210, 281, 313
State Department (US) 26, 28, 75–6, 149
Stayer, Morrison C. 33, 197, 201–2
Steidle, Luitpold 118
Strang, William 7–8, 53, 152, 164, 177, 313
Strauss, E. B. 205, 283
streptomycin 287
Stunde Null, see zero hour
Spanish Civil War (also see International Brigades) 63, 73, 89, 123, 128–9, 141
Special Operations Executive (SOE) 75
Sulfadrugs 99, 172
Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) 21, 25, 28–30, 32–3, 35–6, 39–40, 42, 50, 55–6, 58, 75, 152, 153–4, 160, 164, 175, 188–9, 191, 195, 200, 211, 224, 261–3, 272, 276–7, 282, 312
Sweden 61, 67, 93, 129
Switzerland 61, 85, 94, 99, 128–9, 183, 196, 272, 310
Tapper, Kenneth 34–5
Tassigny, Jean de Lattre de 12, 261, 266
Tavistock Clinic 155–6
Teheran 21, 53, 91, 222
Third Reich 14–15, 47, 86, 103–5, 107, 136, 174, 179, 200, 205, 228, 233, 256, 264, 279, 283, 298, 300, 302, 305, 307
Tiulpanov, Sergey Ivanovitch 222–3, 226, 254
Tönnis, Wilhelm 205
Torgau on the river Elbe 3
trade unions (also see MOI) 64, 73, 75, 79, 83, 84, 119, 128, 132–3, 277
Travail Allemand’ (TA) 64
Treasury (UK) 43, 152, 156, 166–8, 170
Treasury (US) 28,57
Troutbeck, John M. 59, 78
Truman, Harry 217, 221
trusted persons (Vertrauensleute) 94, 225, 232–4, 253, 293
tuberculosis 126, 138, 175, 179, 183, 185–7, 211, 213, 216–7, 219, 248, 281, 285, 302, 309
typhus 2, 5, 33, 131, 154, 160, 192, 198, 228, 250, 252, 263, 272–3, 281, 291, 295–6, 297
typhoid fever 2, 33, 142, 198, 201, 228, 263
Ulbricht, Walter 63, 91–2, 98, 99, 132, 224, 226–7, 232–5, 242, 247, 251, 305, 307
unconditional surrender 19–21, 29, 67, 92, 180, 314
Unger, Helmut 115–16, 307
United Nations 31, 33, 41, 75, 258, 163, 175, 182, 263, 298
United Nations Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)155, 270
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) 33, 80–1, 152, 167, 175, 181–2, 196
United States Forces, European Theater (USFET) 189, 196, 200, 201–2, 205, 208
United States Strategic Bombing Survey 44, 314, 314
Universities 21, 79, 81, 88, 90, 93, 99, 101, 103, 106–7, 110, 114, 116, 123, 126–7, 143, 144, 146, 149, 155, 171–2, 181, 190–1, 204–5, 207, 232, 241, 249, 262, 270, 274, 279, 283, 285, 306, 312
Vaccination 1, 33, 135, 173, 239, 250, 272–3, 281, 291
Vansittart, Robert 19, 74, 80, 282, 302, 305, 308, 311, 313–14
Varga, Eugen S. 47–8, 221
(p.324) venereal diseases (VD) 2, 5, 7, 46, 88, 126, 138, 173, 185, 195–7, 211, 214, 230–1, 235, 241, 247–8, 263, 252–3, 270, 273, 291, 298
Vermeil, Edmond 55, 255–7, 259, 262, 265, 267, 314
Treaty of Versailles 23, 255
Verschuer, Otmar von 264
veterinary medicine 103, 200, 237
Victims of Fascism 175–6
Vichy 33, 52–4, 64, 84, 96, 257–8, 260, 264, 266, 285, 301, 303
Virchow, Rudolf 95–6, 100, 114–16, 141–7, 300–1, 304, 314–15
Voroshilov, Clement E. 49
Vyshinsky, Andrei Y. 50
Wade, Brigadier 32, 37, 43–4
Walker, Patrick Gordon 160, 294, 314
Wandel, Paul 92
War Department (US) 21, 26, 75, 83
War Office (UK) 26–7, 33, 36, 44, 152, 155–6, 157, 158, 165, 167, 202
Washington 20, 27, 44, 46, 62, 77, 91, 190, 193, 199, 213, 218, 297
Wehrmacht 53, 61–2, 64, 76, 97, 100, 102, 107, 110, 123, 128, 131, 165, 225, 229, 234
Weimar Republic 13–14, 67, 86, 96, 115, 123, 126, 131, 185, 217, 230, 236, 266, 279, 296, 298, 303–5, 307, 310, 314–15
Welty, Joel Carl 271–2, 281, 315
Widdowson, Elsie 151, 180–3, 301, 315
Wilson, Francesca 160
Wilson, Roger 82
Wilson, William L. 33, 35, 40, 45, 188, 200, 204–5
Winant, John G. 21, 311
Winter, Irina 138, 315
Winter, Kurt 67, 93, 122–3, 126, 129–30, 137, 141–2, 311, 315
Wolf, Friedrich 123–5, 127, 129, 135, 139, 145, 315
Wolf, Lothar 89
Wundram, Georg 103–4, 120–3, 125,237, 242
Yalta 46, 53, 97, 221–2
Younger, Kenneth 80–2
Zadek, Ignatz 118, 120, 123–4, 126–8, 146
Zeiss, Heinrich 116, 239, 314
Zeithain (POW camp) 131
Zentralverwaltung für das Gesundheitswesen, see Central Health Administration of the Soviet Zone
Zentrum Partei (Centre Party) 64, 66
zero hour (Stunde Null) 14, 95
Zetkin, Clara 62, 301
Zhdanov, Andrei A. 222, 254
Zhukov, Georgy K. 22, 97, 100–1, 118, 123, 221–3, 229, 236–7, 239, 241–2, 247, 249–51, 315
Zonal Health Advisory Council (ZAC) 96, 178–9, 216