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The Making of the Modern Refugee$
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Peter Gatrell

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199674169

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199674169.001.0001

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‘Long Road’ Africa's Refugees, Decolonization, and ‘Development’

‘Long Road’ Africa's Refugees, Decolonization, and ‘Development’

(p.223) 8 ‘Long Road’ Africa's Refugees, Decolonization, and ‘Development’
The Making of the Modern Refugee

Peter Gatrell

Oxford University Press

Although Africa's history cannot be reduced to a history of its refugees, population displacement nevertheless constituted an important element in the colonial and post-colonial context. Liberation struggles, such as in Algeria and Mozambique, produced refugees in large numbers. Independence also proved destabilizing, because colonial authorities had favoured one ethnic group over another. A detailed examination of the conflict in the Horn of Africa, Sudan and Rwanda locates refugee crises in the context of earlier upheavals and the forging of ethnic identity in militarised refugee camps. Development emerged as a key doctrine for UNHCR and NGOs, because refugee-importing states required extra resources to cope with refugee crises, and because development held out the hope of forestalling mass exodus and promoting repatriation by addressing poverty and inequality. Some refugees framed their experiences as an arduous and disquieting journey, as the testimony of Ethiopian Jews reveals.

Keywords:   algeria, sudan, rwanda, horn of africa, refugee journeys, colonial rule, liberation movements, unhcr, refugee camps

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