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Mutualism - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Judith L. Bronstein


Mutualisms, interactions between two species that benefit both of them, have long captured the public imagination. Their influence transcends levels of biological organization from cells to populations, communities, and ecosystems. Mutualistic symbioses were crucial to the origin of eukaryotic cells, and perhaps to the invasion of land. Mutualisms occur in every terrestrial and aquatic habitat; indeed, ecologists now believe that almost every species on Earth is involved directly or indirectly in one or more of these interactions. Mutualisms are essential to the reproduction and survival of vi ... More

Keywords: mutualism, symbiosis, cooperation, facilitation, interactions, ecosystem services, biological organization, Darwin

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2015 Print ISBN-13: 9780199675654
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2015 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199675654.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Judith L. Bronstein, editor
Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, USA

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Front Matter

Chapter 1 The study of mutualism

Judith L. Bronstein

Chapter 5 Evolution and genetics of mutualism

Carina A. Baskett and Douglas W. Schemske

Chapter 9 Mutualism in a community context

Todd M. Palmer, Elizabeth G. Pringle, Adrian Stier, and Robert D. Holt

Chapter 11 Mutualistic networks

Jordi Bascompte and Jens M. Olesen

Chapter 13 Global change and mutualisms

E. Toby Kiers, Anthony R. Ives, and Atsushi Kawakita

Chapter 14 Conserving and restoring mutualisms

Rachael Winfree, Molly MacLeod, Tina Harrison, and Daniel P. Cariveau

End Matter